The world is undergoing a dramatic change in the way energy is produced, transformed, stored and used in its various forms. People are becoming increasingly conscious of the need to move towards a society where energy stops contributing to climate change and local pollution, replacing fossil fuels with renewable energy. Green Hydrogen is one of the option in decarbonising hard-to-abate sectors.
Green hydrogen is an energy carrier that can be used in many different applications (Figure). However, its actual use is still very limited. Each year around 120 million tonnes of hydrogen are produced globally, of which two-thirds are pure hydrogen and one-third is in a mixture with other gases (IRENA, 2019a). Hydrogen output is mostly used for crude oil refining and for ammonia and methanol synthesis, which together represent almost 75% of the combined pure and mixed hydrogen demand. Today’s hydrogen production is mostly based on natural gas and coal, which together account for 95% of production. Electrolysis produces around 5% of global hydrogen, as a by-product from chlorine production.